Schizophrenia is a neurological disorder that has been studied for decades, but we still have yet to fully understand its causes and treatment routes. There exists a subset of patients that are considered to have treatment-resistant schizophrenia, meaning they are unresponsive to the conventional methods of treatment such as clozapine and other first-line antipsychotic medications. Recent research has revealed that there are distinct differences in volume of certain brain structures in schizophrenia patients when compared to healthy controls, which may help to reveal why some patients are responsive to drug treatment and some are not. A decrease in brain structure volume or mass may certainly have an effect upon the effectiveness of a medication, especially one that is designed to target the area that is underdeveloped or damaged. However, there is much research that must be done in order to pinpoint the relationship between neural volume and drug responsiveness. The present qualitative literature review is intended to explore and summarize several more recent studies on treatment-resistant schizophrenia and brain volume.